Interview SummaryAfter returning from World War One, Leonard Howard operated a small hillside farm and then became a blacksmith for the Frontier Nursing Service. He shoed the horses at all the outpost centers and recalls that the FNS had about forty horses at the time. Howard became night-watchman at Wendover and would make coffee about four in the morning for Mary Breckinridge to have when she woke up. He also indicates that when she discovered that Wendover employees were bringing their lunches from home, she had a hot lunch served to them from that time on. Mrs. Breckinridge is well known for the kindness and joy she brought to the FNS. Howard recalls a number of FNS nurses and comments that the attitude toward the local people held by some nurses was not always ideal. They did not fully agree with Mrs. Breckinridge giving free care to patients who maybe could afford it. He also mentions some resentment toward Breckinridge concerning the way she presented the local people in fundraising speeches. They felt she made them look foolish. In the 1950s Howard moved to Dayton, Ohio for a time; he comments upon out-migration from the Leslie County area when people could not get jobs. The only well-paying job in the area seemed to be mining, which wasn't every man's dream job. It is his opinion that some personnel left the FNS because of low salaries. Although not everyone in the area felt the same about the FNS as Howard, he truly believed you could not receive better care anywhere else. The nurses there had received top-notch training and were provided the equipment and facilities to give the highest level of treatment to patients.
Interview KeywordBlacksmiths Charity. Employees Horses Jobs Nightwatchman Nurses. Nursing Outpost centers Personnel Wendover
Interview LC SubjectAppalachian Region--Economic conditions Appalachian Region--Social life and customs Breckinridge, Mary, 1881-1965 Employment--Kentucky Frontier Nursing Service, Inc. Health facilities Leslie County (Ky.) Medical care--Appalachian Region Medical centers--Administration Medical centers--Finance
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Interview UsageInterviews may be reproduced with permission from Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History, Special Collections, University of Kentucky Libraries.
Interviews may be reproduced with permission from Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History, Special Collections, University of Kentucky Libraries.
All rights to the interviews, including but not restricted to legal title, copyrights and literary property rights, have been transferred to the University of Kentucky Libraries.
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Howard, Leonard Interview by Dale Deaton. 09 Jul. 1979. Lexington, KY: Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History, University of Kentucky Libraries.
Howard, L. (1979, July 09). Interview by D. Deaton. Frontier Nursing Service Oral History Project. Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History, University of Kentucky Libraries, Lexington.
Howard, Leonard, interview by Dale Deaton. July 09, 1979, Frontier Nursing Service Oral History Project, Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History, University of Kentucky Libraries.
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