Interview with Effa Manley, October 19, 1977
Project: A. B. "Happy" Chandler: Desegregation of Major League Baseball Oral History Project
Interview SummaryEffa Manley was the first woman to be inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame. She and her husband co-owned the Newark Eagles, which was a Negro League team. In this interview, she talks about the founding of the Negro National League, the Newark Eagles, her role as business manager of the Eagles, the lack of compensation Major League owners gave for Negro League players, and Branch Rickey's taking of baseball players from the Negro Leagues. She describes the formation of the Negro American League, also discussing the scheduling of games, barnstorming, booking agents, salaries for Negro League players, the recruitment of black players for the Negro League, player contracts, and traveling conditions for the Newark Eagles. She talks about Monte Irvin, the Mexican League problem, Satchel Paige, Major League records that have been broken by black players since integration, winter jobs for black players, and the effect that World War II had on Negro League baseball. She describes the opposition to integration in the Major Leagues, the decline of the Negro League after integration, the blocking of Branch Rickey's signing of Monte Irvin to a Major League contract, the United States Baseball League and Branch Rickey's motivation for creating it, and her attempt to get the Newark Eagles into the minor league system. She compares contemporary players to Negro League players, also talking about Jackie Robinson, Commissioner Chandler's role in the integration of the major leagues, Manley's first meeting with Don Newcombe, Newcombe's early career, Bill Veeck's purchase of Larry Doby's contract, Doby as a Newark Eagle, and lobbying efforts to include Negro League players in the Baseball Hall of Fame. Other topics include the effect Jackie Robinson's signing had on the Negro Leagues; Abe Manley's decline in health after the Manleys left the Negro National League, and Bill Veeck's relationship with Larry Doby.
Interview RightsAll rights to the interviews, including but not restricted to legal title, copyrights and literary property rights, have been transferred to the University of Kentucky Libraries.
Interview UsageInterviews may be reproduced with permission from Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History, Special Collections, University of Kentucky Libraries.
Interviews may be reproduced with permission from Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History, Special Collections, University of Kentucky Libraries.
All rights to the interviews, including but not restricted to legal title, copyrights and literary property rights, have been transferred to the University of Kentucky Libraries.
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Manley, Effa Interview by William J. Marshall. 19 Oct. 1977. Lexington, KY: Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History, University of Kentucky Libraries.
Manley, E. (1977, October 19). Interview by W. J. Marshall. A. B. "Happy" Chandler: Desegregation of Major League Baseball Oral History Project. Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History, University of Kentucky Libraries, Lexington.
Manley, Effa, interview by William J. Marshall. October 19, 1977, A. B. "Happy" Chandler: Desegregation of Major League Baseball Oral History Project, Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History, University of Kentucky Libraries.
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